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The 2201 Atlantic hurricane season was a below average North Atlantic tropical cyclone season in terms of the total storms produced, primarily due to minor El Niño conditions persisting across the North Atlantic Ocean. It featured 12 total tropical depressions, 10 total tropical storms, four hurricanes, and one major hurricane throughout the duration of the year. An unusual characteristic of the 2201 season was that aside from Hurricane Ezra, which became the season's strongest storm, none of the storms exceeded Category 1 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale (SSHS). Overall, the 2201 Atlantic hurricane season was very low on the amount of tropical cyclone activity.

Only one notable tropical cyclone occured during 2201 - Hurricane Ezra. It brought waves in excess of 50 feet on the United States Eastern Seaboard between Charleston, South Carolina and Montauk Point, New York, prompting many evacuations and small craft advisories. However, Ezra recurved into the open Atlantic before it could make a landfall, but it did cause all of the season's four deaths and $95 million (2201 USD) in damage. Elsewhere, Hurricane Hal tapped the Yucatán Peninsula, bringing rough waves and minor blackouts to the Cancún metropolitan region, causing a total of $5 million (2201 USD) dollars of damage, and Hurricane Judas brushed several of the Leeward Islands, bringing minor gusty winds along with it. In conclusion, not very many of the 2201 Atlantic hurricane season's storms affected land.


Seasonal activity

Timeline of tropical activity in the 2201 Atlantic hurricane season

Wikipedia:Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale

As a whole, the 2201 Atlantic hurricane season was below normal. Ten tropical storms, four hurricanes, and a lone major hurricane formed throughout the course of the year. All of these numbers are slightly below the long-term averages of 11 tropical storms, six hurricanes, and two major hurricanes, respectively. Furthermore, most of the storms only lasted five days or less due to insufficient conditions in the Atlantic, mainly wind shear and sea surface temperatures cooler than normal.

The 2201 Atlantic hurricane season began on June 1, 2201, and it ended on November 30, 2201, dates that conventionally delimit the time period of tropical cyclogenesis in the North Atlantic hurricane basin. However, due to the minor El Niño conditions, the first storm, Tropical Storm Aden, did not form until July 17, and the last storm, Tropical Depression Twelve, dissipated on October 1, meaning the season spanned 76 days in total. Two storms and a depression formed in July, five storms, two hurricanes, and a major hurricane in August, and three storms, two hurricane, and a depression in September. Unusually, no tropical storms formed after September 16, the day Judas reached tropical storm intensity, partially due to the ongoing El Niño. Consequently, the 2201 Atlantic hurricane season had an extremely early end.

An abnormality occured this year impactwise. Only one storm, Hurricane Hal, made a landfall anywhere at any intensity (it did so as a Category 1 hurricane over the Yucatán Peninsula). This lead to a very low amount of damages and deaths, with the majority of them being caused by Hurricane Ezra. Compared to previous years, 2201 was considered a "break" in the numerous recent runaway Atlantic hurricane seasons by weather forecasting centers such as the National Weather Service (NWS).

Another abnormality occured in 2101, but this time, it dealt with the intensities of most of the storms. Shortly before the start of the hurricane season, a lightning-induced fire demolished the National Hurricane Center's (NHC) headquarters in Miami, Florida as well as all of the Hurricane Hunter flights. As a result, the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (HPC) issued advisories on all the North Atlantic systems as the NHC was being rebuilt. However, the HPC did not own any Hurricane Hunter aircrafts, leading to only two barometric pressure readings being taken in the entire season - a 943 mb reading from Hurricane Ezra at its peak intensity and a 989 mb reading from Hurricane Hal as it made landfall near Cancún. Ezra's pressure was estimated from a geostationary weather satellite image, while Hal's was measured by the cruise liner RMS Queen Mary 3 approximately 15 miles southeast of Cozumel, Mexico, the only measured pressure reading during the 2201 season. In conclusion, only a couple storms had accurate barometric pressure measures in 2201.

List of storms

Tropical Storm Aden

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Wendy 2.png
Duration July 17 – July 21
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 

Tropical Storm Aden stayed out to sea, not affecting land at all. It became a tropical storm on July 18 and maintained that intensity for the remainder of its life.


Tropical Storm Brock

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Hurricane Debbie August 18 1969.jpg
Duration July 24 – July 26
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 

Tropical Storm Brock also stayed out to sea, not affecting land at all. It maintained tropical storm intensity for the entire duration of its life.


Tropical Depression Three

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Possible Subtropical Storm (April 1998).jpg
Duration July 29 – July 30
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 

Tropical Depression Three did not affect land at all.


Hurricane Cyril

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Storm 91C 01 nov 2006 2030Z.jpg
Duration August 3 – August 9
Peak intensity 85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 

Hurricane Cyril stayed out to sea, not affecting land at all. It reached tropical storm intensity on August 4, a hurricane on August 6, and then back to a tropical storm on August 8 before dissipating on August 9.


Tropical Storm Dwight

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
TD ten 2004.jpg
Duration August 7 – August 8
Peak intensity 40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 

Tropical Storm Dwight stayed out to sea as well, causing no land effects at all. It briefly attained tropical storm status for six hours on August 8 before degenerating into an extratropical cyclone.


Hurricane Ezra

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Fabian 2003 Sept 4.jpg
Duration August 11 – August 30
Peak intensity 145 mph (230 km/h) (1-min)  943 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Ezra was the most notable storm of the 2201 Atlantic hurricane season. It reached tropical storm intensity on August 12, hurricane status on August 14, major hurricane status on August 17, and then weakened to hurricane intensity on August 22, tropical storm status on August 27 before finally dissipating on August 30. Despite never making a landfall anywhere, vast areas of the United States Eastern Seaboard received very high waves, strong gusts, and a minor storm surge peaking at 7 feet in Delmar, Maryland. Three people in a car died from a lightning strike in Atlantic City, New Jersey and a surfer was swept out to sea off the coast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Total damages from Ezra totaled up to $95 million (2201 USD).


Tropical Storm Felipe

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Karen 26 sept 2007 1220Z.jpg
Duration August 21 – August 25
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 

Tropical Storm Felipe stayed out to sea, avoiding all landmasses and causing no land impact at all. It reached tropical storm status on August 22 and maintained it through August 25, its dissipation date.


Tropical Storm Gavin

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
111 1455 rgb143.jpg
Duration August 31 – September 1
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 

Tropical Storm Gavin stayed out at sea, not affecting land at all. It maintained tropical storm intensity for its entire lifetime.


Hurricane Hal

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Rina 27 Oct 2011 1645z.jpg
Duration September 6 – September 9
Peak intensity 85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  ≤989 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Hal made a landfall over Cozumel, Mexico and near Cancún as a Category 1 hurricane, causing gusty winds, some minor wave conditions, and a total of $5 million (2201 USD) in damage. It reached tropical storm status on September 6 and hurricane status on September 7 before weakening back into a tropical storm on September 8.


Tropical Storm Ivor

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tropical Storm Mitch.jpg
Duration September 7 – September 11
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 

Tropical Storm Ivor did not affect land at all. It maintained tropical storm intensity for the entire duration of its life.


Hurricane Judas

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Rafael Oct 15 2012 1450Z.jpg
Duration September 15 – September 23
Peak intensity 85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 

Hurricane Judas brought gusy winds onshore to the Leeward Islands, particuarly Saint Martin. However, no damages or deaths were reported and the hurricane never made a landfall. Judas reached tropical storm intensity on September 16 and hurricane status on September 19 before weakening back to a tropical storm on September 22.


Tropical Depression Twelve

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Tropical Storm Colin August 5 1505UTC.jpg
Duration September 29 – October 1
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 
Tropical Depression Twelve did not affect land at all.


Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE)

ACE (104 kt2)
1 61.4 Ezra 6 0.98 Ivor
2 3.04 Judas 7 0.89 Aden
3 1.47 Cyril 8 0.43 Brock
4 1.41 Felipe 9 0.794 Gavin
5 1.03 Hal 10 0.143 Dwight
Total=70.12 (70)

The table on the right shows the accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) for each storm in the season. Broadly speaking, the ACE is a measure of the power of a hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as particularly strong hurricanes, have high ACEs. ACE is calculated for only full advisories on specifically tropical systems reaching or exceeding wind speeds of 34 knots (39 mph, 63 km/h), or tropical storm strength. Accordingly, tropical depressions are not included here. The ACE also does not include subtropical storms. Later the NHC reexamines the data, and produces a final report on each storm, which can lead to the ACE for a storm being revised either upward or downward. Until the final reports are issued, ACEs are, therefore, provisional.

Storm names

See also: List of retired Atlantic hurricane names

The following names were used to name tropical and subtropical storms in the North Atlantic Ocean during 2201. This was one of two naming lists used between 2201 and 2205. Originally, this list was to be first used in 2200, but the El Niño that affected this season had a greater effect that year (no storms formed at all). All names on this list are male names. Names that were allocated for use in the 2201 season but ended up unused are marked in gray.

  • Aden
  • Brock
  • Cyril
  • Dwight
  • Ezra
  • Felipe
  • Gavin
  • Hal
  • Ivor
  • Judas
  • Kurt (unused)
  • Liam (unused)
  • Milo (unused)
  • Nolan (unused)
  • Ouray (unused)
  • Percy (unused)
  • Quincy (unused)
  • Rudy (unused)
  • Sergei (unused)
  • Tino (unused)
  • Uranus (unused)
  • Vitore (unused)
  • Wilber (unused)
  • Xerxes (unused)
  • Yale (unused)
  • Zayn (unused)

Retirement

Due to the lack of any destructive storms in the 2201 Atlantic hurricane season, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) did not retire any names.

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