|First storm formed||January 5, 2017 (Record)|
|Last storm dissipated||Ongoing|
|Strongest storm||Lloyd - 195 mph; 888 mbar (record strongest)|
|Total damages||$133.879 billion (2017 USD)|
|Total fatalities||766 (31)|
The 2017 Lake Superior hurricane season is a current tropical cyclone event that started on May 1, 2017 and will end on December 15, 2017. This will be the first season that all systems will be seen by satellite after the previous got destroyed during Hurricane Dawn. Storms typically form between May and November, with less activity in December. Storms can form year-round, though it is not likely to happen before May, due to the ice on Lake Superior. The season got an early burst of activity from May to early June, featuring the earliest Category 5 hurricane in the basin on record, Hurricane Eva. The season also featured the strongest Lake Superior hurricane on record, Hurricane Lloyd.
|Source||Date||Named Storms||Hurricanes||Major Hurricanes|
|TGMC||December 18, 2016||20-22||10-12||5-7|
|WCB||January 3, 2017||24-26||13-16||10*|
|TGMC (revised)||July 11, 2017||27-29||16||11|
|GLHC||July 12, 2017||28-30||13-16||9-12|
|DHC||July 15, 2017||15-20||9-10||3-4|
|SDTWC||July 25, 2017||24-28||12-16||8-11|
|WCB (revised)||August 1, 2017||29-31||13-15||6-8|
On December 18, 2016, TGMC (TornadoGenius Meteorological Center) released its prediction for the 2017 Lake Superior hurricane season, saying that the season would see a more active year due to the La Nina peaking in 2017. The TGMC expects 20-22 named storms, 10-12 hurricanes, and 5-7 major hurricanes. The Weather Center of Buddhaland (WCB) issued its forecast on January 3, 2017, stating that, "The 2017 season will be the most dangerous year for Lake Superior on record." The TGMC released its revised prediction on July 11, 2017. The revised forecast expected 27-29 named storms, 16 hurricanes, and 11 major hurricanes. The Great Lakes Hurricane Center issued its first prediction, stating "The lake has become much warmer earlier in the season due to an extremely mild winter, melting most of the ice off of the lake. This allowed the formation of Alexis, Brian, and Celia before the season even began. This trend will likely continue up into early December, making this season the most destructive and most active on record in the Northern hemisphere. This beats out the old record set by the 1992 Pacific hurricane season." On July 15, the Douglas Hurricane Center (DHC) predicted an above average season that could feature 15-20 named storms, 9-10 hurricanes, and 3-4 major hurricanes. The DHC stated this due to the fact of the quiet months from September-December, which typically see one storm per month. The SuperDestructiveTwister Weather Center (SDTWC) released their prediction, calling for a very active season with 24-28 named storms, 12-16 hurricanes, and 8-11 major hurricanes. The Weather Center of Buddhaland also re-released a prediction, calling for 29-31 named storms, 13-15 hurricanes, and 6-8 major hurricanes.
The Great Lakes Hurricane Center assigns names to storms in each basin of the Great Lakes. A storm that exits a basin keeps its name. Names in bold are active and names that are normal have been used. Names that are gray have yet to be used. Names not retired in this list will be used again in 2023. Below are the 21 names for 2017:
- Olga (active)
- Peter (unused)
- Rita (unused)
- Simon (unused)
- Tiffany (unused)
- Victor (unused)
- Willow (unused)
Due to the anticipated activity of the season, a mash of 12 Eastern Pacific names were created to be used as secondary names.
- Adrian (unused)
- Blanca (unused)
- Cosme (unused)
- Dora (unused)
- Enrique (unused)
- Flossie (unused)
- Greg (unused)
- Hilda (unused)
- Irwin (unused)
- Juliette (unused)
- Kevin (unused)
- Lidia (unused)
For mid-year retirements on July 13, 2017, the following names were retired: Eva, Fred, Herbert, and Lloyd. Eva was replaced by Esther for 2023.
- Main article: Hurricane Alexis (2017)
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||January 5 – January 8|
|Intensity||90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min), 975 mbar (hPa)|
On January 4, a tropical disturbance formed near Duluth, Minnesota. The disturbance was the earliest disturbance recorded in the basin. Soon enough, the Great Lakes Hurricane Hunters flew into the system, where the reading measured 40 mph winds at the center and a pressure of 1007 mbar. The system was named Alexis, and was the earliest named storm on record. Alexis began to strengthen and attained a wind speed of 60 mph and a barometric pressure of 997 mbar. Alexis entered unusually warm waters, and began to rapidly intensify jumping from a 60 mph tropical storm on January 6, to a 90-mph Category 1 hurricane on January 7. Alexis began to move over icy waters on January 8 and dissipated after rapidly strengthening into a hurricane the day before.
Tropical Storm Brian
|Tropical storm (SSHS)|
|Duration||February 20 – February 24|
|Intensity||60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min), 990 mbar (hPa)|
On February 20, a tropical depression formed 70 miles east-southeast of Thunder Bay, Ontario. The storm system moved slowly to the east, strengthening steadily. Soon after, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm, and was named Brian. Brian attained a peak intensity of 60 mph and a pressure of 990 millibars. Tropical Storm Brian made landfall about 50 miles NW of Wawa, Ontario. Brian caused minimal damage and no fatalities. Brian dissipated on February 24.
- Main article: Hurricane Celia (2017)
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||April 21 – April 30|
|Intensity||100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min), 973 mbar (hPa)|
On April 18, the Great Lakes Hurricane Center noted that a tropical disturbance was forming near the Apostle Islands, just 45 miles NNE of Ashland, Wisconsin. The storm began to slowly move east, strengthening steadily. On April 20, the storm was declared as Invest 93S. The invest strengthened rapidly over the next day. On April 21, the a Great Lakes Hurricane Hunter reconnaissance flight proved that the invest had become a tropical depression. The tropical depression was designated as 03S. Tropical Depression 03S quickly began to strengthen as the day moved on. Over the next three days, the storm struggled to strengthen. Finally, on April 25, Three became a tropical storm and was designated as Celia. Tropical Storm Celia moved in a path directly towards Keweenaw County, Michigan. Evacuations took place from the storm there, and in the county below, Houghton County. The county officials of both counties prompted evacuations due to the "uncertainty of the storm's intensity at landfall". As predicted, Celia became much stronger as it approached the coast of Keweenaw County, and rainfall from the bands of Celia caused flooding. The outer bands of Tropical Storm Celia also contributed to one fatality near the city of Houghton. A reconnaissance flight recorded sustained winds of 75 mph in the eyewall of Celia, allowing the storm to be upgraded to hurricane status. Hurricane Celia impacted the area from April 27-28. On April 28, Celia began to strengthen as it moved over the eastern portion of Lake Superior. Hurricane Celia became a Category 2 hurricane on April 29, just two days before the season actually started. The strengthening would not last long as Celia began to become extratropical, which allowed the system to weaken back into a Category 1 hurricane. On April 30, Celia became extratropical, with its remnants hitting several islands. Overall, Celia caused $100 million in damages and one fatality.
Tropical Storm Dorian
|Tropical storm (SSHS)|
|Duration||May 21 – May 22|
|Intensity||40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min), 1007 mbar (hPa)|
On May 21, a tropical storm formed just off of the Ontarian coast. The storm was named Dorian. Later that day, Dorian made landfall as a 40 mph tropical storm. On May 22, Dorian began to lose strength and dissipated. Dorian was found to have only caused one indirect fatality upon landfall in Ontario.
- Main article: Hurricane Eva
|Category 5 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||June 1 – June 5|
|Intensity||160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min), 917 mbar (hPa)|
On May 27, the Great Lakes Hurricane Center noted a tropical low just north of the Keweenaw County Peninsula. The low became organized over a couple days and became Tropical Depression Five-S on June 1. Later that day, the storm rapidly intensified into a tropical storm, earning the name Eva. Rapid intensification occurred overnight, causing Eva to become a high-end tropical storm the next morning. Later that day, Eva became a minimal hurricane with 75 mph winds. Eva continued to intensify during that afternoon, reaching the equivalent of a high-end Category 1 hurricane. With a pressure of 972 mbar at the time, Eva became the strongest storm of the season during that time. Due to explosive intensification, Eva required a new technique to save lives, emergency advisories. Emergency advisories were issued every hour to warn residents under warning about the oncoming storm and how dangerous the storm was expected to be at landfall. The first emergency advisory was issued at 4:00 p.m. on June 2. At that same time, hurricane watches and warnings were posted from Deer Park, Michigan to Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. With the issue of this emergency advisory, Eva was upgraded to a Category 2 hurricane with 105 mph winds. Later that evening, during the second emergency advisory, Eva was upgraded to the first major hurricane of the season, with 120 mph winds. Rapid intensification occurred again, as Eva became the first Category 4 hurricane since Hurricane Lorraine the year before. Winds of 145 mph were recorded, with gusts at Category 5 hurricane intensity. Overnight, the rapid intensification of Eva stopped occurring. In only 24 hours, Eva went from a tropical depression to a Category 4 hurricane. Eva strengthened slightly overnight. The final emergency advisory of the day put Eva as a high-end Category 4 hurricane. The intensity did not change for about 12 hours until winds of 155 mph were recorded. On the same morning, cities and towns along the coast were evacuated. Many of them were told to stay with family members that do not live along a coast of one of the Great Lakes. Then, one hour later, Eva became the first Category 5 hurricane of the season. This only lasted 7 hours, as Eva weakened back into a high-end Category 4 hurricane. Further weakening occurred the next day, and Eva neared the coast of Michigan. Late on Sunday evening, Eva made landfall as a Category 4 hurricane. Due to land interaction, Eva rapidly weakened into a Category 2 hurricane. The next day, Eva was a tropical storm, and further weakening continued. Later that day, Eva's final advisory was issued. Extreme flash flooding and damage occurred in Michigan. A state of emergency was declared in the state of Michigan, mainly in Chippewa County, where 77 of the 95 deaths occurred. According to news reports, the city of Paradise was 75% destroyed due to storm surge and high winds. In Sault Ste. Marie, Eva caused major damage to homes and businesses. At least 40% of the buildings in the city were damaged or destroyed due to flooding and storm surge. Eva crossed into the extreme southern portion of the peninsula before dissipating. In that area, the towns of Hessel and Cedarville sustained the worst damage. Trees and power lines were downed due to high winds, and many people were evacuated. The outer bands of Eva struck the coast of Ontario, causing tree damage and minor flooding. 97 deaths resulted from Eva, and a final damage total of $58 billion has been reported.
- Main article: Hurricane Fred
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||June 26 – June 30|
|Intensity||105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min), 970 mbar (hPa)|
On June 22, a tropical wave formed from tropical moisture associated with Tropical Storm Cindy. The wave began to very slowly strengthen over the Duluth area. The wave began to weaken with slight land interaction, and nearly dissipated. On June 24, the wave slowly moved off of the coast, with barely any convection left. However, on June 25, thunderstorms began to rebuild in the system as it traveled north. Late on June 26, the tropical wave was designated as Tropical Depression 06-S. Six-S slowly strengthened overnight into June 27. At 4:00 p.m. on June 27, Six-S became a tropical storm. The storm was named Fred. The next morning, Fred began to steadily strengthen. Fred started to hug the coast of the Minnesota/Ontario border, causing a lot of flooding. Two tornadoes were reported with Fred, both near the Sliver Bay, Minnesota area. During the afternoon hours of June 28, a hurricane reconnaissance flight flew into the system. They found that Fred had become a fairly strong Category 1 hurricane. Just before landfall, Fred strengthened into a 105-mph Category 2 hurricane. Fred made landfall at that intensity and kept the intensity inland, too. Extreme flooding occurred in the city of Grand Marais. As of right now, flooding, wind damage, and storm surge have caused about $975 million in damages. 22 fatalities occurred. Fred rapidly weakened and dissipated on June 30.
Tropical Storm Gretchen
|Tropical storm (SSHS)|
|Duration||June 29 – July 1|
|Intensity||45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min), 1002 mbar (hPa)|
On June 28, a tropical wave formed off of the coast of the Michigan Peninsula. This tropical wave rapidly gained strength and was declared an invest later that day. On June 29, the invest continued to strengthen. At 11:00 p.m. on June 29, the Great Lakes Hurricane Center (GLHC) upgraded the invest into a tropical depression and designated it as Seven-S. Later that day, Seven-S became a weak tropical storm and was named Gretchen. Gretchen traveled over cool waters and tried to keep strength. Tropical Storm Gretchen attained a peak intensity of 45 mph/1002 mbar. On the morning of July 1, Gretchen began to weaken as the waters near Michipicoten Island began to cool quickly. Soon after, Gretchen became post-tropical as it entered winter-like conditions.
- Main article: Hurricane Herbert
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||July 5 – July 12|
|Intensity||130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min), 946 mbar (hPa)|
On July 2, a tropical wave formed south of Two Harbors, Minnesota. The wave remained stationary as it strengthened on July 3 and July 4. Finally, on July 5, the wave became a tropical depression and began to move to the southeast. Overnight on July 5, the depression rapidly strengthened into a tropical storm. The storm was named Herbert. Due to the unstable, moist atmosphere and warm sea surface temperatures, Herbert continued to rapidly strengthen. Also, no wind shear was in place for the storm to encounter. Herbert caused evacuations across the Apostle Islands due to the possibility of becoming a major hurricane before landfall. That evening, Herbert continued to rapidly intensify, becoming a hurricane by the end of the day. Hurricane watches and warnings were posted for all of the Apostle Islands, as flooding was reported in northern portions of Wisconsin. Then, Herbert continued to intensify overnight. On July 7, Herbert had become a Category 2 hurricane with 110-mph winds. Herbert became the second major hurricane of the season on the same day. Just as the storm strengthened into a major hurricane that morning, Herbert made landfall on the Apostle Islands. Herbert's worst luckily struck an uninhabited island. The worst damage at the Apostle Islands was done to trees. The next day, Herbert moved out of the Apostle Islands and became a Category 4 hurricane. On July 9, Herbert began to slightly weaken due to land interaction. This trend continued to occur on July 10, as Herbert weakened into a Category 2 hurricane, just as it made landfall on the Michigan Peninsula. Herbert caused $600 million in damages and 17 fatalities in the peninsula. On July 11, Herbert weakened into a high-end tropical storm. This weakening trend continued through the day, but slowed down due to slightly more favorable conditions. The conditions, however, were still not favorable enough for intensification. Rapid weakening occurred during the early morning hours of July 12. This caused what was left of Herbert to become a remnant low.
- Main article: Hurricane Iris (2017)
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||July 6 – July 10|
|Intensity||75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min), 989 mbar (hPa)|
On July 1, a tropical wave associated with Gretchen's remnants formed near Marquette, Michigan. The wave slowly strengthened over several days until July 6, when a reconnaissance flight investigated the system and found tropical storm equivalent winds. The storm was named Iris. On the next day, Iris began to affect land as its bands slowly moved across Northern Michigan. However, by the end of that morning, Iris had moved away from the coast. Damages totaling $40.6 million have been reported from flooding. Due to favorable conditions, Iris gained hurricane strength on July 8. Due to unfavorable conditions on July 9, Iris began to weaken from hurricane status. Finally, on July 10, Iris became an extratropical cyclone.
Tropical Storm Jacob
- Main article: Tropical Storm Jacob (2017)
|Tropical storm (SSHS)|
|Duration||July 13 – July 14|
|Intensity||40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min), 1006 mbar (hPa)|
On July 11, a tropical wave formed near Isle Royale. On July 12, the Great Lakes Hurricane Center began to notice the wave. It gained AOI status late that morning. As strengthening continued, the GLHC began to investigate the system. It was declared an invest on July 13. The same day, the invest became a tropical depression just south of Isle Royale. Later that day, the depression gained tropical storm status and was named Jacob. The intensity of Jacob remained the same until becoming post-tropical as it struck Isle Royale. Jacob caused minor flooding and downed several trees.
Tropical Storm Kelly
|Tropical storm (SSHS)|
|Duration||July 15 – July 17|
|Intensity||50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min), 999 mbar (hPa)|
On July 14, the Great Lakes Hurricane Center began to notice a tropical wave near the Duluth, Minnesota area. This tropical wave developed rapidly overnight on July 15, becoming a tropical storm the next day. The tropical storm was named Kelly. Kelly steadily strengthened over the span of that day. However, the next day, Kelly entered unfavorable conditions which caused the storm to weaken. The next morning, Kelly became a remnant low due to the sudden change in condition.
- Main article: Hurricane Lloyd
|Category 5 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||July 15 – July 19|
|Intensity||195 mph (315 km/h) (1-min), 888 mbar (hPa)|
On July 13, a tropical wave formed off of Isle Royale. The wave remained stationary in a favorable environment. The GLHC began to notice the storm and designated it as Invest 90S. The invest rapidly developed overnight and became a tropical storm on July 15 and was named Lloyd. Models have taken it as a Category 4 hurricane into Marathon, Ontario. Rapid strengthening began to occur that day, with Lloyd reaching winds of 70 mph. The Great Lakes Hurricane Center predicted Lloyd to become the strongest tropical cyclone in the basin, surpassing Hurricane Kenneth. Lloyd continued to rapidly strengthen. In six hours, Lloyd jumped from a 70 mph tropical storm to a 90 mph Category 1 hurricane. Overnight, Lloyd became a high-end Category 3 hurricane. The same day, the abnormally favorable conditions allowed Lloyd to become a high-end Category 4 hurricane. The size of Lloyd allowed Lloyd to bring torrential rains for two days to Isle Royale. Most of the trees on the island were completely washed away, and the few cabins that were on Isle Royale were completely swept away. Six people died on Isle Royale. On July 16, Lloyd prompted major hurricane warnings for Ontario. The Great Lakes Hurricane Center stated that emergency advisories would be issued at 8:00 a.m. July 17 due to the very dangerous threat of catastrophic damage. The GLHC even called Lloyd an "Armageddon Hurricane". Lloyd caused the evacuation of Marathon, Ontario and other towns around it. The mayor of Marathon stated, "Due to the major threat of a Category 5 hurricane making landfall here in Marathon, we demand everyone in the city to evacuate." Most of the people began to evacuate on the afternoon of July 16. However, most people decided to stay behind and most said, "No such thing is going to hit. Even if something were to come, I wouldn't believe that it is even more than a sprinkle shower." This created panic among the people of Marathon that had evacuated. The city of Thunder Bay sent sandbags for the city of Marathon for the oncoming storm. The officials stated, "These people are stupid and insane if they don't think that there is a storm coming. Most people have a television, and they can just turn on the news to see it on." That evening, Hurricane Lloyd became the second Category 5 hurricane of the season and surpassed Eva as the strongest storm of the season. Lloyd also became the second-strongest storm in the basin, just three millibars off from Hurricane Kenneth's record 898 millibars. On the morning of July 17, Lloyd surpassed Hurricane Kenneth as the strongest storm on record in the Lake Superior basin. Lloyd was only 75 miles off the coast of Marathon at the time. Lloyd further strengthened to a 185 mph Category 5 hurricane when emergency advisories began to be issued. Later that day, Lloyd tied Hurricane Gilbert as the third strongest storm on record in the Western Hemisphere. As Lloyd began to slightly weaken, residents of Terrace Bay began to evacuate due to the movement of the storm affecting their area. According to a local radio station, Lloyd caused flood damage to homes in Terrace Bay. On July 18, the eyewall of Lloyd slammed into Marathon, Ontario. Damage from the eyewall has been estimated to be at about $8 billion in damages. Damage is still ongoing in the city of Marathon and other places around it. The Slate Islands were completely destroyed by Lloyd. Hundreds of trees were ripped up from the ground on the islands. Damages totaled almost $1 billion on the islands, making it the costliest hurricane on record on the Slate Islands. Lloyd also became the costliest storm to affect land on Northern Lake Superior, surpassing Hurricane Claus which occurred a year before. Hurricane Lloyd also became the strongest landfalling hurricane on record in the basin, with 185 mph winds at landfall. Land interaction began to cause Lloyd to weaken. Due to high elevation interfering with the storm, Lloyd dissipated suddenly on July 18. Overall, damage done by Lloyd reached $74.1 billion and over 630 fatalities were reported.
Tropical Storm Molly
|Tropical storm (SSHS)|
|Duration||July 24 – July 27|
|Intensity||45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min), 1005 mbar (hPa)|
On July 21, the Great Lakes Hurricane Center began to notice the possible development of a tropical wave near Marquette, Michigan. The GLHC was correct about a tropical wave developing. Due to rapid intensification, the wave was declared an invest on July 23. The next day, a closed circulation was found and winds in excess of 39 mph. This prompted advisories on Tropical Storm Molly. Due to slightly conducive conditions, Molly strengthened into a 45 mph tropical storm the following day. Molly began to stall in intensity, which was a sign of Molly hitting peak intensity on July 25. On the next day, Molly began to enter a dry, heavily sheared environment. Molly was fighting, however, and managed to persist another day before dissipating on July 27.
- Main article: Hurricane Nestor (2017)
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||August 1 – August 5|
|Intensity||75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min), 987 mbar (hPa)|
On July 29, a tropical wave formed off of the Apostle Islands. Its slow movement and location caused some strengthening. The wave was previously a cluster of thunderstorms that caused heavy rainfall in Bayfield, Wisconsin. The wave began to rapidly strengthen over favorable conditions. On July 30, the storm became designated as Invest 92S. Several Hurricane Hunter aircraft recons found no change in strength over the day. The next evening on July 31, the storm began to develop a closed circulation, and became Tropical Storm Nestor the next morning. Upon formation, Nestor became the southernmost forming storm in the Lake Superior basin, at 46.36°N. As mentioned above, Nestor began to strengthen due to favorable conditions. On August 3, Nestor defied forecasts and became a hurricane. Land interaction caused Nestor to begin to weaken. In northern Wisconsin, damages totaled to only $14.6 million. On August 4, Hurricane Nestor made landfall near Ontonagon, Michigan. One indirect fatality occurred in that city. Nestor began to rapidly weaken and dissipated as a tropical depression over Northern Lake Michigan. Damage from Nestor included downed power lines, trees, and damaged buildings. Several roads were washed out along Lake Superior. The overall damages from Nestor totaled to $64.6 million in damages.
On August 11, a tropical wave rapidly intensified off of the coast of Marquette, Michigan, and became Tropical Storm Olga. Olga was very slowly moving, which caused flooding in Marquette, Michigan. Olga entered very favorable conditions on August 12, which caused Olga to strengthen into a high-end tropical storm. That same day, Olga became a Category 1 hurricane. Rapid intensification allowed forecasts to put Olga to become a Category 4 hurricane. The GLHC had noted that Olga developed a very clear eye. They sent another reconnaissance flight into Olga, which discovered 125 mph sustained winds inside the eyewall of Olga. Overnight on August 14, Olga became a Category 4 hurricane. Olga continued to strengthen, defying most forecasts calling for Olga to stay as a Category 3 hurricane. Olga caused wave swelling on Caribou Island. Caribou Island was completely wiped out by Olga. Olga began to slightly weaken due to slightly cooler waters. The conditions were favorable enough for Olga to maintain Category 4 hurricane intensity. The weakening trend continued to occur on August 16, when Olga weakened into a Category 3 hurricane. Olga weakened into a Category 2 hurricane later that day, and hurricane watches and warnings were issued for the southern Thunder Bay district. The flood risk only included the city of White River. Residents were issued warnings about the storm.
Tropical Depression 16S
|Tropical depression (SSHS)|
|Duration||August 12 – August 13|
|Intensity||30 mph (45 km/h) (1-min), 1010 mbar (hPa)|
On August 8, the Great Lakes Hurricane Center began to notice a tropical disturbance developing south of Isle Royale. The disturbance had only a 20% chance of formation the day it was noticed. As the next day progressed, the disturbance became Invest 95S and made landfall on Isle Royale. Invest 95S continued to move through unfavorable conditions and barely managed to hold together. On August 12, a sudden burst of convection led the GLHC to send a reconnaissance flight into the system. The circulation was closed and winds of 30 mph were observed. The storm was upgraded into a tropical depression late that evening, earning the designation, 16S. Due to dry air attacking the system, strengthening was unable to occur. Therefore, 16S succumbed to the unfavorable conditions on August 13.